domingo, 1 de outubro de 2017

COMO ESCREVO? - Amadeu de Queiroz

Vou dar uma ideia. Logo que imagino um romance, crio os seus personagens e, antes do mais, faço uma relação de todos eles, com os nomes e as características de cada qual. Assim os personagens começam a existir desde logo. Vão adquirindo personalidade e não me deixam mais um instante sequer.
Como na vida, os personagens de um romance devem existir antes da ação. Devem ser uns tipos comuníssimos, mesmo porque não é possível inventar as figuras de uma obra de ficção. Devem existir, dissimulados em toda gente; devem ter os olhos de um, o talento e o nariz de outro, a astúcia e a feiúra de muitos, a maldade de quase todos. O que sai de minha pena existe por aí, senão na realidade, com certeza na imaginação de muita gente.
Quer saber de uma coisa? Quando escrevo, procuro imitar o incrustador que, aos pedacinhos, faz o admirável conjunto de sua obra. Aplico o mesmo processo aos homens, à paisagem, às paixões, a tudo que possa gerar emoções. 
A emoção não se transmite. O escritor não deve apresentar a sua obra integralmente realizada, nem dar um sentido definitivo às suas palavras, mas incitar, com a sua arte, a arte dissimulada dos leitores, realizada só por eles, conforme a cultura e a sensibilidade de cada um. Sejam o que forem, os escritores, talentosos ou geniais, só conseguirão, com a sua arte, despertar emoções dormentes.
O livro é fonte de emoções sempre novas. Passem as gerações e os leitores continuarão criando os seus mundos, inspirados no mesmo livro, no livro que não morre nem envelhece. Mas também há os leitores pretensiosos. Esses querem a toda força encontrar em nossos escritos intenções que jamais tivemos.
Acontece, às vezes, que me vem à lembrança uma palavra qualquer, que me parece expressiva ou interessante. Sinto um desejo enorme de utilizá-la. Então componho uma frase em que ela fica em bastante destaque. Feita a frase, corrijo-a, deixo-a bem apurada e aplico-a a um sentimento, a uma paisagem, a um tipo. Depois, acomodo-a a uma história.
O leitor não conhece essas ginásticas de trampolineiro. Supõe a criação enorme, descendo para a exiguidade da palavra. Portanto, já então, eu saí do meu rumo para cair no do leitor. E, assim, quanto mais incompreensível me apresento, mais engenhoso ele se torna para interpretar-me. E chega ao ponto de descobrir intenções que não tive, símbolos de que não me servi, argúcias filosóficas de que nunca dispus.

terça-feira, 24 de janeiro de 2017

Losing my Religion for Equality

I have been a practising Christian all my life and a deacon and Bible teacher for many years. My faith is a source of strength and comfort to me, as religious beliefs are to hundreds of millions of people around the world. So my decision to sever my ties with the Southern Baptist Convention, after six decades, was painful and difficult. It was, however, an unavoidable decision when the convention's leaders, quoting a few carefully selected Bible verses and claiming that Eve was created second to Adam and was responsible for original sin, ordained that women must be "subservient" to their husbands and prohibited from serving as deacons, pastors or chaplains in the military service.
This view that women are somehow inferior to men is not restricted to one religion or belief. Women are prevented from playing a full and equal role in many faiths. Nor, tragically, does its influence stop at the walls of the church, mosque, synagogue or temple. This discrimination, unjustifiably attributed to a Higher Authority, has provided a reason or excuse for the deprivation of women's equal rights across the world for centuries.
At its most repugnant, the belief that women must be subjugated to the wishes of men excuses slavery, violence, forced prostitution, genital mutilation and national laws that omit rape as a crime. But it also costs many millions of girls and women control over their own bodies and lives, and continues to deny them fair access to education, health, employment and influence within their own communitiesThe impact of these religious beliefs touches every aspect of our lives. They help explain why in many countries boys are educated before girls; why girls are told when and whom they must marry; and why many face enormous and unacceptable risks in pregnancy and childbirth because their basic health needs are not met.
In some Islamic nations, women are restricted in their movements, punished for permitting the exposure of an arm or ankle, deprived of education, prohibited from driving a car or competing with men for a job. If a woman is raped, she is often most severely punished as the guilty party in the crime.
The same discriminatory thinking lies behind the continuing gender gap in pay and why there are still so few women in office in the West. The root of this prejudice lies deep in our histories, but its impact is felt every day. It is not women and girls alone who suffer. It damages all of us. The evidence shows that investing in women and girls delivers major benefits for society. An educated woman has healthier children. She is more likely to send them to school. She earns more and invests what she earns in her family.
It is simply self-defeating for any community to discriminate against half its population. We need to challenge these self-serving and outdated attitudes and practices - as we are seeing in Iran where women are at the forefront of the battle for democracy and freedom.
I understand, however, why many political leaders can be reluctant about stepping into this minefield. Religion, and tradition, are powerful and sensitive areas to challenge. But my fellow Elders and I, who come from many faiths and backgrounds, no longer need to worry about winning votes or avoiding controversy - and we are deeply committed to challenging injustice wherever we see it.
The Elders are an independent group of eminent global leaders, brought together by former South African president Nelson Mandela, who offer their influence and experience to support peace building, help address major causes of human suffering and promote the shared interests of humanity. We have decided to draw particular attention to the responsibility of religious and traditional leaders in ensuring equality and human rights and have recently published a statement that declares: "The justification of discrimination against women and girls on grounds of religion or tradition, as if it were prescribed by a Higher Authority, is unacceptable."
We are calling on all leaders to challenge and change the harmful teachings and practices, no matter how ingrained, which justify discrimination against women. We ask, in particular, that leaders of all religions have the courage to acknowledge and emphasise the positive messages of dignity and equality that all the world's major faiths share.
The carefully selected verses found in the Holy Scriptures to justify the superiority of men owe more to time and place - and the determination of male leaders to hold onto their influence - than eternal truths. Similar biblical excerpts could be found to support the approval of slavery and the timid acquiescence to oppressive rulers.
I am also familiar with vivid descriptions in the same Scriptures in which women are revered as pre-eminent leaders. During the years of the early Christian church women served as deacons, priests, bishops, apostles, teachers and prophets. It wasn't until the fourth century that dominant Christian leaders, all men, twisted and distorted Holy Scriptures to perpetuate their ascendant positions within the religious hierarchy.
The truth is that male religious leaders have had - and still have - an option to interpret holy teachings either to exalt or subjugate women. They have, for their own selfish ends, overwhelmingly chosen the latter. Their continuing choice provides the foundation or justification for much of the pervasive persecution and abuse of women throughout the world. 
This is in clear violation not just of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights but also the teachings of Jesus Christ, the Apostle Paul, Moses and the prophets, Muhammad, and founders of other great religions - all of whom have called for proper and equitable treatment of all the children of God. It is time we had the courage to challenge these views.

*Jimmy Carter - The Observer (2009).